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A Little History

I am Jerry and I started experimenting at a very early age. I read every science and science fiction book I could lay my hands on. I took every science and math class in school and finally went of to college to study science. My father wisely told me when I left that I would not really understand the science I studied until I could return and explain the science to him so he could understand it.

I started my under graduate studies in electrical engineering but realized what I was really interested in was physics, as a result I ultimately received a degree in physics and math. I had always been interested in gravity as well as electromagnetics so for my graduate studies I chose the discipline geophysics and thus I needed to understand how the laws of physics interacted with earth so I minored in geology. My dissertation was in gravity and because I was at the U of U the studies involved how the gravity field affected geology in the state of Utah.

My career has involved both professional and amateur science. What do I mean by professional and amateur? That is easy I define professional as any work I was “paid” for, and I define amateur as any thing “I” did for fun and because “I” wanted to.

I have been involved with amateur astronomy. A friend of mine, Bruce Grim and myself constructed a 15-foot dome observatory containing a 16-inch reflector telescope and then donated it to the Salt Lake Astronomical Society. I have continued amateur studies of gravity and have added nuclear and particle physics.

Professionally I have worked for private industry, the government, and finally my own company. Using my knowledge of the earth and electromagnetics I developed a technology that can track and map groundwater. The concept of the technology is simple and basic, but complex in execution. It works because water conducts electricity. Connect an electrode to groundwater, energize it and electrical current follows the groundwater. The flowing electrical current generates a magnetic field. Measure and map the magnetic field that is generated and that maps where the groundwater is located. This professional endeavor lead to creating my own permanent employment. The company “Willowstick” is based on this technology.


This is the type of physics I like, simple and effective.

Stepping back, in the 1960's in a modern physics class I became fascinated with the nucleus. At that time the electron structure of the atom was understood. The properties of electrons and their shell structure provided the knowledge around which chemistry and electronics have been built. The periodic table provides the foundation and understanding for the chemistry associated with elements. Knowledge of electron behavior in the outer shells of elements has allowed the mastery of solid state electronics.

But the nucleus seemed to have everyone baffled, then and now. I knew that if it took two diametrically opposed theories, the waterdrop and shell models, to explain the nucleus that something was wrong and physics did not understand the structure of the nucleus. There were magic numbers that were suppose to corresponded to the electron shells, but those magic numbers were and are nebulous and ill-defined. Because everything about those nuclear models seemed contrived, so I concluded that no one really understood the structure of the nucleus. Thus for 40 years I have been a physics stamp collector, collecting any and all data I could obtain that related to atomic, nuclear and particle physics. My stamp collecting involved first collecting data on the nucleus and elementary particles, second organizing all that data and third analyzing then re-organizing and re-analyzing. Ultimately my amateur work culminated in a major breakthrough in physics and an understanding of the nucleus. That is a single model that fits all the data with no exceptions.


Unclear2nuclear presents a structure of the nucleus that is held together by the strong force but the structure is controlled by the electric forces from the quarks that make up the protons and neutrons. Four facts opened the door.

1. The atom electron structure is the result of negative electrical charges moving with respect to a positive nucleus. This occurs because the electrical field which both attracts and repels.

2. The strong force holding the nucleus together but the strong force cannot impose structure because it only attracts.

3. The three quarks that make up protons and neutrons have positive and negative electric charges, and thus there exists an electrical charge that should be able to define or control nuclear structure.

4. Three quarks, no matter how you put them together, can only form flattened triangular shaped objects, not spheres.

On the Rest of This Site.

This site is a compilation of my ideas and thought that I have written down over the years. Most of my work on the nucleus is presented in “unclear2nuclear” so most of the work in this site is related to gravity, electrical and magnetic plus a few other ideas relating to physics. I hope something written here might help lead or start someone down some other road to discovery. My friend Rondo always reminds me that “In science there is stamp collecting and there is physics.”


What is meant can be demonstrated by the story of gravity (see section on ________). Under this schema as it relates to gravity, Aristotle because he did not use observation or measurement data was a faker, Copernicus and Tycho were the original stamp collectors, they collected observational data, Kepler was a collector when he organized the data and his work became physics when he developed a model, his 3 laws of planetary motion. This was not the end of the gravitational physics. Galeleo was a collector when he observed Jupiter’s moons he was also a collector when he conducted his inclined plane trolley experiments. Newton used the data collections of the previous men and the physics of Kepler to create the physics of Newtonian gravity. I have not made up my mind yet about Einstein and gravity, a lot of things he did were great such as the quantum effect but I think the verdict is still out on gravity.


It is referred to as electromagnetic because too many people forget that there are four Maxwell equations. They only remember equation 3 and 4 which relate to the electromagnetic phenomena of electricity and magnetism. Maxwell equation 1 is about the magnetic field only. Maxwell equation 2 is about the electrical field only. Thus, there are three fields electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic not just one. This is especially confusing to may because in some venues the electrical and the magnetic effects are referred to as the electromagnetic field.

Another interesting problem is during electromagnetic propagation it is generally accepted that the electric field and magnetic field are in phase which results in the energy move between an energy maximum and zero, which has been difficult to justify in terms of conservation of energy. However if the electric field and the magnetic field are out of phase, the energy of the electromagnetic wave would be moving back and forth between the electric field and magnetic field which would satisfy the conservation of energy. So are the two fields in phase as is now accepted as the correct solution to Maxwell’s equations 3 and 4, or is there an out of phase solution to Maxwell’s equations that would solve the problem of energy conservation? Or is there another answer?

The velocity of light is a constant and acts different than the velocity of sounds, so how is the Doppler effect on light explained. Another quantity that can affect the Doppler shift in off center lines incidents are that lengths are shortened in the direction of travel as the speed of light is approached but lengths perpendicular to the direction of travel are not effected. Time is shortened in the direction of travel what about perpendicular to the direction of travel, additionally the same question comes to mind for mass?

Mass and Energy

These two entities, mass and energy, are interrelated by “The Equation” that again is supposed to involve the velocity of light, but the question is, is “The Equation” stated in the correct form?

As you proceed, enjoy.